Pharmaceutical Analysis-I


1.   Significance of quantitative analysis in quality control, Different techniques of
analysis, Preliminaries and definitions, Significant figures, Rules for retaining
significant digits, Types of errors, Mean deviation, Standard deviation, Statistical
treatment of small data sets, Selection of sample, Precision and accuracy.
Fundamentals of volumetric analysis, methods of expressing concentration,
primary and secondary standards.

2.   Acid Base Titrations : Acid base concepts, Role of solvent, Relative strengths of
acids and bases, Ionization, Law of mass action, Commonion effect, Ionic product
of water, pH, Hydrolysis of salts, Henderson-Hessel bach equation, Buffer
solutions, Neutralization curves, Acid-base indicators,·’ Theory of indicators,
Choice of indicators, mixed indicators, Polyprotic system, Polyamine and amino
acid systems, Amino acid titration, applications in assay of Hl04,NaOH, CaC03
etc.   .

3.   Oxidation Reduction Titrations : Concepts of oxidation and reduction, Redox
reactions, Strengths and equivalent weights of oxidizing and reducing agents,
Theory of redox titrations, Redox indicators, Cell representations, Measurement
of electrode potential, Oxidation-reduction curves, Iodimetry and Iodometry,
Titrations involving ceric sulphate, potassium iodate, potassium bromate,
potassium permanganate; titanous chloride and Sodium 2, 6-dichlorophenol

4.   Precipitation  Titrations: Precipitation reactions, Solubility products, Effect of
acids, temperature and solvent upon the solubility of a precipitate. Argentometric
titrations and titrations involving ammonium or potassium thiocyanate, mercuric
nitrate, and barium sulphate, Indicators, Gaylussac method; Mohrs method,
Volhard’s method and Fajan’s method.

5.   Gravimetric Analysis: Precipitation techniques, Solubility products; The colloidal
state, Supersaturation co-precipitation, Postprecipitation, Digestional washing of
the precipitate, Filtration, Filter papers and crocibles, Ignition, Thermogravimetric
curves, Specific examples like barium sulphate, aluminium as aluminium oxide,
calcium as calcium oxalate and magnesium as magnesium pyrophosphate,
Organic precipitants.

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